I recently came across the K–12 Computer Science Framework, a document created in the United States by the Association for Computing Machinery, code.org, the Computer Science Teachers Association, the Cyber Innovation Center and the National Math + Science Initiative.
The 297 page document is impressive in both its breadth and depth. I would recommend that anyone involved in Computer Science Education take a look (I include all those involved in coding, computer programming, computational thinking and related initiatives within this group).
Below are a series of quotes and figures from the document. These are simply a few of the interesting talking/research points that have been included. The Framework discusses each of these ideas in depth.